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印度工厂印象 The Impression of Indian Factories

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继文章“一个商务访问者眼中的德里”之后,推出新篇“印度工厂印象”。近些年印度也在大力发展基础设施,而随着基础设施的建设,也带动了印度的工业发展,准确的说是制造业发展,甚至中国也有企业开始进驻印度设厂以开发本地市场,比如笔者就有认识的朋友服务于国内某知名手机制造商,被派往印度支援并指导生产本土化。加之传统的制造大国中国的人工成本一路上升,出口印度的关税仍然高居不下,而与此同时印度同许多周边国家加强了关税互惠政策,以增强自身的出口竞争力,印度的制造业面临很大的发展机遇。尽管近期印度2017年度第一季度的GDP为不尽人意的5.7%,广泛的国际国内评论把这归咎于总理莫迪的去年底的“废除大额面钞”和今年的“税率统一”新政,但哪一个发展和转型没有经历过阵痛期。长远来看,越是欠发达的地区越是发展机遇广阔,何况印度有和中国一样多的人口基础。

Here is a new article The Impression of Indian Factories after the previous Delhi in the Eyes of a Business Visitor. In recent years, India has been vigorously constructing infrastructures, which has also promoted the development of its industry, or manufacturing exactly. Even Chinese businesses start to set foot in India to explore the local market. A friend of mine, say, who works for a well-known cellphone manufacturer in China, has been sent to India to assist and guide production localization. In view of the fact that China, the traditional manufacturing country, sees a continuous increase in labor cost and puts high levies on export to India and that India has enhanced the tariff policy of mutual benefit with many peripheral countries to improve its export competitiveness, the Indian industry promises rosy opportunities for development. India reported a disappointing GDP growth rate of 5.7% for the first quarter of 2017, which broad national and international comments attributed to Premier Modi’s abolishing large-denomination bills last year and the new policy of flat tax rate this year, but it is normal that each entity that is developing and transforming goes through difficulty. In the long run, the less an area develops, the more opportunities it possesses for development; moreover, India has as large  population as China.

      因为工作的关系,笔者有机会在过去4年间拜访了印度7家建筑五金类产品的外销型制造型企业,分布在印度的不同城市。因为没有更加深入的了解,只作经历当中事实性的陈述和部分个人观点供参考。

In the past 4 years, I paid business visits to 7 export-oriented manufacturing enterprises of building hardware located in several cities in India. Due to a lack of further investigation, I will only make factual statement of my experience and provide personal thoughts for reference.

这些工厂的一些基本信息如下:

Here is the basic information of these factories:

 

所拜访的这些印度工厂的工作时间基本以09:00 – 17:30 为主,中间30分钟吃饭,外加上午15分钟的茶歇和下午15分钟的茶歇,所谓的茶歇就是打铃休息,有人说东南亚的一些工厂员工难以管理,“他们中间要拜神”,其实说的就是茶歇时间,既然是休息时间,当然员工可以自由利用。

These factories have a working time that mostly falls in between 9:00 and 17:30, with a 30-minute interval for meal and a 15-minute tea break both in the morning and in the afternoon. A tea break is when the workers have a rest. Some hold that southeast Asian workers are hard to manage, saying “they have to worship gods during work.” This is what takes place in the tea break, which, being a time for rest, can be definitely used by the workers freely.

中间的吃饭时间通常是13:30 到14:00,这是我第一次去拜访当地的分公司不习惯的地方,到了中午12:00,没有人过来安排我去就餐,还以为出了什么差错,结果到了13:00,才有负责接待的同事过来打招呼说半个小时后去饭堂就餐。当时分公司的办公室在GURGAON一个商业片区,食堂就在公司楼下,属于私人承包的那种,点餐就像大学里见到的饭堂一样。工厂一般是没有配食堂的,员工到带餐或者到外面自行解决,至少不需要配微波炉,食堂和微波炉都不属于设立工厂的基本要求。

Lunch usually begins at 13:30 and ends at 14:00, to which I was not accustomed the first time I visited a local branch. I supposed lunch at 12:00 but it was not until 30 minutes later that I was informed by a colleague of the lunch in another 30 minutes. The branch office was sited in a commercial district in Gurgaon. Downstairs is a privately contracted canteen where food is served in a university way. Factories are not equipped with canteens, or at least microwaves, so the workers bring their meal to work or eat outside.

通常工厂在正常的工作日内会有2个小时的加班,而这也是法律许可的,在此之外,每周6天的工作制也是法律许可的。也就是说正常的下班时间是19:30,何况加班是常见现象,如果工厂是在大城市比如德里,那么绝大部分的员工都会是外地移民,如果员工不是住在工业区附近,由于德里常年不分时段交通堵塞,那么1-2小时的车程是肯定需要的, 9点钟左右到家才能吃上晚饭,所以11:00 到 12:00 才能上床睡觉非常正常,这与我所理解的健康养生时间表相差太远了。甚至我认识的一个当地企业主每天晚上要看2-3部好莱坞电影到凌晨3-4点钟,常年如此,真是让我不可思议。在大城市的工厂,对于普通员工来讲,大部分还是属于外来移民,就像国内背井离乡到大城市打工一样。在偏远一点的城市,工人以本地人为主,而所有印度工厂都是不配宿舍的,针对这点,当地企业主纷纷对中国企业配有宿舍表示好奇。这些外地移民就只有到附近村里或者搭乘公共汽车到远一点的地方租房居住,我想要是企业能配有宿舍给员工,那将真是一大福利会吸引不少优质员工。以德里为例,维基上说有1700万,而百度上说有2600万,而后者更加接近我当地朋友的数据,而这个数据里面70%是外地移民,可见每个首都都是淘金之地,得利益的是当地居民。

Usually, the factory will have 2 hours of overtime within normal working days, which is also permitted by law, and the 6 workingday/week is also permitted by law. That is to say the normal closing time is 19:30, taking into consideration that overtime is common. If the factory is in a big city like Delhi, then most of the employees are immigrants. If employees do not live near the industrial zone, 1-2 hours’ drive is certainly needed before arrive at home at around 9 o’clock due to perennial traffic jams in Delhi. So go to bed at 11:00 to 12:00 seems very normal. This is, however, far from what I know as a healthy living schedule. Even a local business owner I know watches 2-3 Hollywood movies every night till 3-4 in the morning, year in and year out, which is really incredible to me. The general staff in factories in big cities are mostly immigrants, just like those in remote villages in China crowding into big cities looking for a job. workers in far flung cities are mainly local residents. Indian factories are not equipped with dorms, local entrepreneurs are surprised about Chinese companies with dormitories. Those immigrants have rent a living place in a neighboring village or somewhere farther. if a business can